Aug 5, 2023

The definition you haved used and the examples you have provided relate to *Statistical Hypotheses* and *Statistical Hypotheses Testing*:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/mathematics/statistical-hypothesis

Alternatives exists within Statistics (see Neyman-Pearson) but also in wider Science as it's possible to test a hypothesis in a deterministic way for example does a wimg structure on an aircraft break or not under a known load.